Research Finds That Small Dogs Can’t Go Without Their Toothbrushes
A visual inspection won’t cut it, regular oral care for small dogs is critical to prevent dental disease and to know when it strikes
A new study looking at oral care for small breed dogs may have dog owners thinking twice about their current oral care regime. The study, conducted by the WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition and published in BMC Vet Research, examined the progression of periodontal disease in miniature schnauzers and found that without effective and frequent oral care, dental disease developed rapidly and advanced even more quickly with age.
“We all want to do the very best for our pets’ health, and the study showed us that there’s more than meets the eye when it comes to small dogs’ oral health,” said Dr Stephen Harris, leader of the oral care team at WALTHAM®, part of Mars Petcare. “The study findings help us better understand the way dental disease appears and progresses and underscores the importance of proper oral care, especially as our dogs age.”
To better understand the rate of dental disease progression, researchers replaced the regular oral care routines of miniature schnauzers with full mouth examinations. They found that, without regular oral care, the majority of dogs developed the early stages of periodontal disease within six months and dogs above the age of four developed periodontal disease even faster. The degree to which periodontal disease progressed varied based on the type of tooth and location on the tooth.
Furthermore, the study showed that periodontitis developed regardless of the visible signs of gingivitis, which had previously been believed to reliably precede it. Therefore while a visual inspection may be sufficient to detect a disease like gingivitis, it is not useful in detecting the onset of periodontitis and may not reveal the areas at greatest risk for dental disease.
“Some pet owners “lift-the-lip” and look at a dog’s gums to get a sense of its oral health, but this research shows they could be missing important early signs of dental disease,” said Dr Harris. “The findings should encourage all dog owners to establish an oral care routine that consists of regular tooth brushing supplemented with dental chews and veterinary checks. It’s important for all dogs, but we know that small dogs like miniature schnauzers are at an even higher risk of developing severe dental problems.”
About the Study: “A Longitudinal Assessment of Periodontal Disease in 52 Miniature Schnauzers”
WALTHAM conducted a study examining the rate of progression of periodontal disease in miniature schnauzers. Over the course of 60 weeks, full mouth examinations were conducted on 52 miniature schnauzers ranging in age between 1.3 and 6.9 years. Prior to the study, each dog had a regular oral care routine that included tooth brushing. This was suspended a week before the initial dental assessment. Of the 2,155 teeth examined, all entered the study with some level of gingivitis, while only 23 teeth entered with periodontitis. Every 6 weeks, levels of gingivitis and periodontitis were assessed around the whole surface of each individual tooth by measuring periodontal probing depth, gingival recession and furcation exposure. Teeth were assessed for the level of gingivitis (scored between 0 and 4) and periodontitis (PD1 - up to 25% attachment loss and PD2 - between 25 to 50% attachment loss). Teeth from only one dog in the study did not progress to periodontitis
About the WALTHAM® Centre for Pet Nutrition:
Celebrating 50 years of innovative science, the WALTHAM® Centre for Pet Nutrition serves as a leading scientific authority in advancing the frontiers of research into the nutrition and health of companion animals. Located in Leicestershire, England, the renowned state-of-the-art science institute for Mars, Incorporated generates knowledge that enables the development of innovative products that meet pets’ needs in a practical way. Since the publication of its first original research in 1963, WALTHAM® has pioneered many important breakthroughs in the field of pet nutrition and human-animal interaction, resulting in more than 1,700 publications, including over 600 peer-review scientific papers. Today, WALTHAM® continues to collaborate with the world’s foremost scientific institutes, driving Mars’ Petcare vision to create a better world for pets and providing the science and expertise that underpins leading Mars brands such as WHISKAS®, PEDIGREE®, NUTRO®, TRILL®, CESAR®, SHEBA®, KITEKAT®, DREAMIES™, AQUARIAN®, WINERGY®, BANFIELD® Pet Hospital and the ROYAL CANIN brand.
About Mars, Incorporated:
In 1911, Frank C. Mars made the first Mars candies in his Tacoma, Washington kitchen and established Mars’ first roots as a confectionery company. In the 1920s, Forrest E. Mars, Sr. joined his father in business and together they launched the MILKY WAY® bar. In 1932, Forrest, Sr. moved to the United Kingdom with a dream of building a business based on the objective of creating “mutuality of benefits for all stakeholders” – this objective serves as the foundation of Mars, Incorporated today. Based in McLean, Virginia, Mars has net sales of more than $33 billion, six business segments including Petcare, Chocolate, Wrigley, Food, Drinks, Symbioscience, and more than 75,000 Associates worldwide that are putting its Principles into action to make a difference for people and the planet through its performance.
Mars brands include: Petcare – PEDIGREE®, ROYAL CANIN®, WHISKAS®, BANFIELD® Pet Hospital, CESAR®, SHEBA®, DREAMIES® and NUTRO®; Chocolate – M&M’S®, SNICKERS®, DOVE®, GALAXY®, MARS®, MILKY WAY® and TWIX®; Wrigley – DOUBLEMINT®, EXTRA®, ORBIT® and 5™ chewing gums, SKITTLES® and STARBURST® candies, and ALTOIDS® AND LIFESAVERS® mints. Food – UNCLE BEN’S®, DOLMIO®, EBLY®, MASTERFOODS®, SEEDS OF CHANGE® and ROYCO®; Drinks – ALTERRA COFFEE ROASTERS™, THE BRIGHT TEA COMPANY™, KLIX® and FLAVIA®; Symbioscience – COCOAVIA® and WISDOM PANEL®.
For reference information and to view the study findings published in BMC Veterinary Research,
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