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AGO offers rare glimpse of life inside a Second World War Jewish ghetto through unearthed collection of photographs

Never before seen in Canada, exhibition features over 200 images of daily life under Nazi rule


This winter the AGO offers an extraordinarily rare glimpse of life inside the Lodz Ghetto during the Second World War through the daring lens of Polish Jewish photojournalist Henryk Ross (1910-1991). Situated in the heart of Poland, the city of Lodz was occupied by German forces in 1939 and became the country’s second largest ghetto for the Jewish population of Europe, after Warsaw. Incarcerated in 1940 and put to work as a bureaucratic photographer by the Jewish Administration’s Statistics department, Ross unofficially—and at great personal risk—took thousands of images of daily life in the ghetto. These profoundly urgent representations of Jewish life in the ghetto, taken through cracks in doors or through Ross’s overcoat, capture the complex realities of life under Nazi rule, from the relative privileges enjoyed by the elites to the deportation of thousands to death camps at Chelmno and Auschwitz. “Having an official camera,” Ross later recalled, “I was able to capture all the tragic period in the Lodz Ghetto. I did it knowing that if I were caught my family and I would be tortured and killed.”

Opening in Toronto on Jan. 31, 2015, at the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross will display over 200 of these incredible images, including original prints in addition to prints from surviving negatives, contact sheets and film projections. Never before exhibited in Canada, the images will be accompanied by artifacts, including Ross’s own identity card, ghetto notices and footage from the 1961 trial of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann, where Ross’s photos were submitted as evidence.

As the time of the mass deportation began, when the last remaining ghetto residents were being sent to their deaths at Auchwitz, Ross hid his negatives. “I buried my negatives in the ground,” he said in 1987, “in order that there should be some record of our tragedy…I was anticipating the total destruction of Polish Jewry. I wanted to leave a historical record of our martyrdom.” Ross and his wife Stefania were among a very small percentage of ghetto inhabitants to survive the war, and after the liberation of Lodz Ghetto in January 1945 he was able to excavate his negatives. Over half of his original 6,000 negatives survived, albeit with some damage, making his collection one of the largest visual records of its kind to survive the Holocaust.

The indelible scenes displayed in Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross evoke a visual and emotional meditation on a harrowing moment in history. Curated by Maia-Mari Sutnik, the AGO’s curator of special photography projects, these negatives are part of the AGO collection and were generously gifted by the Archive of Modern Conflict in 2007. “Ross’s images make up a deeply moving record of human life and suffering,” said Sutnik. “He had an ability to make many singular moments into poignant narratives, allowing us to reflect on our difficult history and remember.”      

In the 1950s, Ross and his wife moved to Israel, where he worked as a photographer and zincographer. Although he made very few prints from his collection of surviving negatives, Ross handcrafted an album of contact prints, which forms the centerpiece of the exhibition and will be shown in its entirety. Its pages are filled with small 35mm prints, roughly arranged in rows, documenting people, activities and loss. Capturing Ross’s personal narrative of life in the ghetto, the album is a summation of his memories and an attempt to tell his story through photographs. 

Accompanying the exhibition are several large colour photographs by contemporary Toronto photographer Yuri Dojc. These images - which depict views of Slovakia’s abandoned synagogues, Jewish cemeteries and other fragments of the country’s Jewish history - provide a contemporary vehicle for remembrance. “The power of Ross’s photos lies in their rawness and immediacy and the visceral sense of being in the moment and at the scene,” said Gillian McIntyre, AGO interpretive planner. “In Dojc’s work, we see similar scenes but through a retrospective lens. This distance, we hope, will provide visitors a space to reflect.”

Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross will be on display at the AGO until June 14, 2015. It will be accompanied by an extensive 244-page hardcover catalogue. Featuring essays by curators, critics, filmmakers and scholars including Maia-Mari Sutnik, Eric Beck Rubin, Bernice Eisenstein, Michael Mitchell and Robert Jan van Pelt, the catalogue will be available for sale in shopAGO for $40.

The exhibition is included with the price of general admission and is free to AGO members. More information on the benefits of AGO membership can be found at

Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross is organized by the Art Gallery of Ontario.

The AGO acknowledges the generous support of its Signature Partners: American Express, Signature Partner of the Conservation Program; Aimia, Signature Partner of the Photography Collection Program; and the RBC Emerging Artists Project, Signature Partner of AGO Artist Projects.

Lead supporter
The Cyril & Dorothy, Joel & Jill Reitman Family Foundation

Generously supported by
A friend in Ottawa, in memory of the perished

Jack Weinbaum Family Foundation
Gerald Sheff & Shanitha Kachan
MDC Partners—Miles S. Nadal
Gerald Schwartz & Heather Reisman
Marion & Gerald Soloway
Ed & Fran Sonshine
Larry & Judy Tanenbaum & family

Apotex Foundation—Honey & Barry Sherman
Daniel Bjarnason & Nance Gelber
D. H. Gales Family Foundation
Wendy & Elliott Eisen
Saul & Toby Feldberg
Beatrice Fischer
Joe & Budgie Frieberg
Lillian & Norman Glowinsky
Maxine Granovsky Gluskin & Ira Gluskin
Mary Golfman & Fred Litwin
The Jay and Barbara Hennick Family Foundation
Warren & Debbie Kimel
The Koschitzky Family
Steven & Lynda Latner
In memory of Miriam Lindenberg by her children,
Nathan Lindenberg and Brunia Cooperman and families
Earl Rotman & Ariella Rohringer

Penny Rubinoff
Samuel & Esther Sarick
Dorothy Cohen Shoichet
Fred and Linda Waks, Jay and Deborah Waks

With a collection of more than 80,000 works of art, the Art Gallery of Ontario is among the most distinguished art museums in North America. From the vast body of Group of Seven and signature Canadian works to the African art gallery, from the cutting-edge contemporary art to Peter Paul Rubens’ masterpiece The Massacre of The Innocents, the AGO offers an incredible art experience with each visit. In 2002 Ken Thomson’s generous gift of 2,000 remarkable works of Canadian and European art inspired Transformation AGO, an innovative architectural expansion by world-renowned architect Frank Gehry that in 2008 resulted in one of the most critically acclaimed architectural achievements in North America. Highlights include Galleria Italia, a gleaming showcase of wood and glass running the length of an entire city block, and the often-photographed spiral staircase, beckoning visitors to explore. The AGO has an active membership program offering great value, and the AGO’s Weston Family Learning Centre offers engaging art and creative programs for children, families, youth and adults. Visit to find out more about upcoming special exhibitions, to learn about eating and shopping at the AGO, to register for programs and to buy tickets or memberships.

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The Art Gallery of Ontario is funded in part by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. Additional operating support is received from the City of Toronto, the Canada Council for the Arts and generous contributions from AGO members, donors and private-sector partners.


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